The most common cause of diabetic foot complications can be traced back to neglected corns and calluses. Corns and calluses by definition are excessive build up of thick, hard skin. Corns are found on the toes and calluses are seen on the soles of the feet. Neuropathy, particularly motor neuropathy affecting the muscles and tendons of the foot is responsible for the development of various foot deformities. Your doctor may order x-rays at the time of assessment in order to get a clear indication of the foot problem. X-rays are a superb method of calculating the proper alignment of the toes to see if any shifting has taken place.
A bunion forms when the bursa (a sac of fluid at friction points between the tendons and bone in some areas and between bone and the skin in others) becomes inflamed along the edge of the joint at the base of the big toe. There are two types of bunions The acute bunion causes the sharper pain. It develops from a bursitis , a sudden outcropping of a fluid-filled sac. The symptoms of a bunionette include pain and difficulty buying shoes that will not cause pain around the deformity. The swelling in the area causes a visible bump that some people find unsightly. Diagnosis
Local cold pack is use sometimes helpful as well. If you must wear heels, make sure the shoe is not taut and narrow at the toes and try to avoid wearing heels for large periods of time. Orthotics can help slow the progression of the bunion and also treat the associated symptoms. Bunion night splints can reduce the size of the bunion. This will straighten the bunion while you sleep. A Bunion Shield can reduce the pain over the bunion. Apply a moisturizer such as flexitol heel balm twice daily to hard skin or corns and use a pumice stone to reduce the thickness of the hard skin.
Hammertoes are a deformity where the middle joints of all the toes are bent. This occurs due to poorly fitted shoes and muscle imbalance. Improper footwear and individual bone structure exert pressure and form a benign and enlarged growth of nerves. The rubbing of tissues causes irritation, numbness and tingling in the nerves which in turn manifests as a burning sensation. These are called Neufomas and are treated conservatively with corticosteroids. The bones pushing against the skin and exerting pressure results in corns and calluses thereby thickening the skin and irritating the underlying tissues.
A callus is a toughened and thick area of skin that has been exposed to repeated contact or pressure. Calluses aren’t harmful but can lead to infection. They are typically located on the hands (as a result of activities like weight lifting or playing a string instrument) and on the feet (as a consequence of tight shoes). Calluses vary in size and they can be painful. Make sure you take your medicine with food though if you can! Especially if you are prescribed the Celebrex for the 3 days post surgery.
Fortunately, Cone Health has an exceptional network of podiatrists and related healthcare providers dedicated to treating individuals with foot problems, such as corns, calluses and bunions, throughout the community. Dr. Richard Sikora is a podiatrist at Triad Foot Center and a member of the Cone Health Medical Staff. Dr. Sikora received his medical degree from the Ohio College of Podiatric Medicine, and completed his residency training at the Central Carolina Residency Program. He has been in private practice since 1990 and is certified in Foot Surgery by the American board of Podiatric Surgery.
Many of our foot problems are inherited but we can help diminish this by looking after our feet. Wear comfortable shoes. My criteria tends to be that if they do not feel like old slippers when you try them on in the shop find some that do! Our feet swell as the day goes on so buy shoes in the afternoon as you get a clearer idea of comfort. And remove hard skin when necessary, as described above. Use cream on feet nightly. Aqueous cream is really good for feet, reasonable to buy and it absorbs easily.
If your doctor decides that the angle of the metatarsal is too great, the fifth metatarsal bone may be cut and realigned. This is called an osteotomy Once the surgeon has performed the osteotomy, the bones are realigned and held in position with metal pins. The metal pins remain in place while the bones heal. Rehabilitation Treatments directed to the painful area help control pain and swelling. Examples include ultrasound, moist heat, and soft-tissue massage. Therapy sessions sometimes include iontophoresis , which uses a mild electrical current to push anti-inflammatory medicine to the sore area. This treatment is especially helpful for patients who can’t tolerate injections. After Surgery
This can be compared to a new hinge on a garden gate with smooth movement around the hinge pin and very little play in an up / down direction. The same hinge in 5-10 years, having been used 1000’s of times will now squeak, have a few lumps of rust built up and have plenty of play against gravity. Corns and callus are one of the most common problems seen by Podiatrists. They can occur on any part of the foot or sometimes on palms and vary in symptoms from a mild hardness under the foot, to an infected ulcer that can develop under a corn on a toe.
Diabetes is a disease in which either not enough Insulin is produced by the pancreas (Type 1) or the insulin that is produced is not recognized by the cells of the body (Type 2). As a result, both types of diabetes lead to abnormally high blood sugar concentrations. High blood sugar (glucose) levels can lead to coma and death. In addition, chronic diabetes, through mechanisms that are still not completely understood, often results in complications involving many of the organ systems throughout the body. Some commonly affected organs are the kidneys(nephropathy), the eyes(retinopathy), the nerves(neuropathy) and the blood vessels( vascular disease).